International Environmental Politics

October 18th, 2017

Interrelation between states does not concern only global politics and economic development. Environment is another vital attribute that we all share on Earth. Environmental politics is a relatively new concern in international relations; environmental risks are not as old as wars, but their threat can be equal to that of a military conflict. Its subjects are governments and international institutions as well as businesses and consumers. Subjects strive not only to understand the causes behind the environmental change but to react effectively.
Environment is a natural resource, just as coal or oil that people extract and trade in. There is a limited amount of fresh water and soil as well as timber and other common-pool natural resources. Immeasurable resources, like air, have their quality that declines due to the actions of the subjects. But scholars find it difficult to respond to environmental threats because altruistic actions of subjects can bring them losses and give others the possibility of free riding. Governmental regulation is needed to create equal opportunities for all.
Theoretically, it is hard to cope with the environmental change because we cannot always measure the success we made. The Montreal protocol is considered as successful because it reduced emissions of ozone-depleting chemicals by 95%. Certainly, immeasurable values, such as longevity, quality of life, or frequency of chronic diseases, directly depend on emissions and waste that we can estimate precisely. Therefore, subjects may always start from curbing the waste they produce, which will improve their own image. Environmental responsibility shall be put by state and international organization as a must for domestic subjects who contribute to pollution.

International Law

October 18th, 2017

The public international law makes a legal system that regulates international agreements, disputes, trade, the use of force and self-defense, and many more issues. Unlike the domestic law, the international legal system is horizontal, namely, it has no executive, legislative, and judicial bodies to enforce its laws. Member states are equal in their rights and do not subject to a higher authority. Today international law has expanded far beyond Europe and acquired new competencies, like resistance to environmental changes or regulating weapons of mass destruction.
Just like international relations, international law can be viewed through realism, liberalism, and constructivism. While liberals believe in the development of international law facilitated by interdependence of states, realists argue that power and military strength have a greater impact on international relations than mutual interests do. Constructivists view international law as a unity of subjects that share some ideas and values. Legal norms shape their identity and display interests.
The primary sources of international law are treaties, customary law, and general principles. They regulate relations according to written agreements or previously-established practices. Judicial decisions and teachings of respectable legal scholars are secondary sources of international law; they impact relations between states indirectly. States are the subjects of international law, and the practices and instruments they use are its objects. Among subjects, we also distinguish nonstate actors that are individuals and international organizations.
All sections of the international law are equally important as they exist to resolve real arguments between states. International humanitarian law that regulates armed conflict has become even more complex taking into account the threat of international terrorism and weapons of mass destruction. Prevention of conflicts is a challenge to states, each of them pursuing their own interests. Global economy is another crucial object of the international law. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization not only set standards for markets but also give loans to most international players.

International Political Economy and Trade

October 18th, 2017

International trade has recently become an important political issue. Globalization made goods accessible everywhere, and liberalization lifted most tariff and non-tariff barriers. Despite the advantages of world trade are visible, economic globalization is a controversial topic for interest groups and a broader public. People consider their welfare is directly affected by trade policies, and try to reject unfavorable economic novelties in the first place. Export-oriented companies welcome further liberalization because it offers them broader business opportunities. Firms oriented at the domestic market see a threat in liberalization.
Liberalism is a popular theory in the international political economy as it implies sheer globalization of economies. It gives advantages through importing cheap goods, and many countries benefit from zero trade barriers. Before the advent of liberalism, mercantilism or economic nationalism dominated in industrial countries. It helped countries to build their own economic power through protectionist policies that maximized exports. Historical structuralism was another popular economic theory that deployed Marxist ideas about the importance of class relationships for the international economy.
Since the 1990s, world trade has grown faster than the world output. Today more countries participate in trade than ever before, and no world region falls out of it. Major trade markets are concentrated in the OECD countries and a few Asian ones. Since 1980, trade between developed countries has doubled due to their exports. The growth happens as countries abandon their protectionist policies and international organizations impose rules that benefit most subjects.

Complex Interdependence and Globalization

October 18th, 2017

Though globalization is thought to unite national groups into a single society, complex relationships between people create integration, differentiation, order, and chaos at the same time. Social, economic, and political spheres are interdependent, and political leaders need to handle the complicated power of globalization and respond to it wisely to take advantage of globalization. As the distance contracts in the result of globalization, we find that much more spheres are interrelated with each other.
Despite the positive effect of globalization on international economies, critics of globalization argue that wages and benefits fall and bring unemployment. Apparently, not all societies have developed appropriate policies to protect their people from the free market capitalism. Thus, the absence of governmental regulation may foster spontaneous development of the market increasing its chances to collapse. Many countries in Asia and the Pacific have grown and reduced their poverty due to the flow of investors, but the effect is not uniform for all countries.
The concept of interdependence had existed yet before the mass globalization took place. It implies that inequalities and injustice emerged in the result of historical and social events. As countries approached globalization, international organizations were created and given a sufficient decision-making authority. Though international organizations and governments succeeded to make use of globalization in policy making, cultures remain vulnerable to the global impact. We find it important to face globalization as a means to simplify politics and eliminate economic borders preserving cultural peculiarities at the same time.

The Democratic Peace

October 18th, 2017

Nations at war have always made a classic example of international relationships. As long as there have been groups with national interests, there was a conflict between them. It changed with the onset of democratic order in the late 18th century. It turned out that democratic states rarely, if ever at all, had conflicts with each other. This phenomenon was called the democratic peace and characterized by scholars as an effective tool for conflict resolution.
Although democratic societies have a strong tendency to preserve peace, it depends on many factors. The theory of democratic peace is not a law, and critics question it from several perspectives. First, definitions of democracy and war may differ. In the classical understanding, we can say that no democracies have been involved in a war between 1800 and 1997. But there have been certain conflicts between the states that approach democracy, such as the Spanish-American War or the Boer War.
The ability of democracy to increase or decrease international peace also depends on the stage of democratic development. A democracy arises as the state tries to turn away from its autocratic order. Numerous national political groups appear in the process and start to compete for their interests. It leads to domestic turmoil and foreign policy maneuvering that increase the probability of war.
Taking into account the international context of the 20th century, scholars suspect that the democratic peace is merely the result of low-level contact between few democracies and the politics of cold war. During this period, the US and the Soviet Union enforced peace between their different national groups. Few as they were, democracies had no opportunity to engage in a conflict.

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